Biomechanical Evaluation of Exercises for Performing a Forward Handspring – Case Study

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Kamenka Živčić-Marković; Goran Sporiš; Ines Čavar; Aleksandra Aleksić-Veljković; and Zoran Milanović.


The aim of this study was based on the kinematic parameters, extracted at different stages of performing a forward handspring to determine the interconnection of methodological procedures of learning with the final structure of the movement. The respondent is an active competitor with years of experience, elite athlete, many times Croatian champion, and competitor at European, World Championships and the Olympics. The team composed of six gymnastic experts, chose one of the best performances by twelve methodological procedures and the best performance (of six) two-leg forward handsprings basing their choice on a detailed review of recorded material. Assessment of quality of performance was done according to the defined rules prescribed by the regulations (Code of Points). The forward handspring technique consists of four phases based on which 45 space and time kinematic parameters were selected (30 parameters in the phase of hand contact and push-off, 7 in the flight phase, and 8 parameters in the landing phase). By extraction of space and time parameters, there was a differentiation of certain methodological procedures that are the best for learning forward handspring in each phase of its performance. This research indicates that these methodological procedures mostly coincide in space kinematic parameters by which the technique of a forward handspring is described.


Zivčić-Marković K, Sporiš G, Cavar I, Aleksić-Veljković A, Milanović Z. Biomechanical evaluation of exercises for performing a forward handspring – case study. J Hum Kinet. 2012;34:21-32. doi:10.2478/v10078-012-0060-2


gymnastics, methodology, basic exercises, biomechanical analysis

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